Ciężko pogodzić się nam z trwającą wojną na Ukrainie. Trudno jest myśleć o czymkolwiek innym. Dzisiejszy odcinek powstał w hołdzie dla Ukrainy. Przybliża historię Ukrainy i pokazuje, choć w dużym skrócie, jak wiele bogactw posiada. Często Ukraina kojarzona jest ze wschodem i z Rosją właśnie. Co prawda, długo była pod okupacją radziecką, ale jeszcze dłużej związana była z Polską i Litwą, krajami centralnymi bliższymi kulturowo krajom Europy zachodniej. Pobierz tekst i sprawdź słownictwo
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Short history of Ukraine
Short history of Ukraine
Putin is now referring to the XVIII century Russia when the latter one conquered Ukraine and called it Little Russia. Little Russia is a geographical and historical term used to describe the current territories of Ukraine. It is said that this term was first used in 1335 by Bolesław Jerzy II from the House of Piast, great grandson of prince Konrad Mazowiecki. He assigned himself to the title of the ruler of the whole Little Russia . A geographer and ethnographer Zygmunt Gloger in his work “Geography of historic lands of the Old Poland” points that the term “little” in fact had the meaning “new”. The first appearance of the name Ukraine was in 12 century chronicles. This name started to be more widely used in 19 century in order to awaken Ukrainian national awareness.
Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic country, Kyivan Rus which in 10th and 11th century was the largest and the most powerful state in Europe. With time it got weakened by Mongol invasions and got incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for the Ukrainian nationalism during the next centuries.
A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate was established during the mid 17th century after an uprising against the Poles. In spite of continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for more than 100 years. In the 18th century most of the Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire.
After the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917 Ukraine was able to achieve a short period of independence between the years 1917 and 1920 when it again got conquered and forced to stay under brutal Soviet rule. The Soviet occupation resulted in two forced famines (1921-1922 and 1932-1933) in which more than 8 million people starved to death. The second famine now bears the name of Holodomor and is recognized by Ukraine and 15 other countries as genocide of the Ukrainian people by the Soviet government. It was caused by confiscation of all household foodstuff and thus affected the major grain producing areas of the country.
Finally, Ukraine gained independence in 1991 after dissolution of the USSR.
So, for almost 400 years Ukraininas were living either in the Grand Dutchy of Lithuania or in the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth. These were countries open to the western influence and western civilization, contrary to Russia. So, Ukrainians are in fact more part of the western civilization than the eastern one.
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